The COP28 conference in Dubai is slowly coming to an end and it is time to draw a first conclusion. The main task of the conference was to take stock of where the world stands eight years after the signing of the Paris Agreement – and how the countries intend to remedy the massive deficits that have arisen in the implementation of targets. Measured by the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, all previous climate conferences have failed. Since regular measurements began in 1958, the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has risen exponentially, and the conferences of the last 20 years have done little to change this. At best, one could favourably conclude that the growth rate has not increased in the last 20 years.
But where do we now stand at the conference with the negotiations on the draft treaty?
One of the most important texts yet to be finalised is the Global Stocktake, a biennial comprehensive assessment of countries’ nationally determined contributions to climate change mitigation. These national emission reduction strategies will be reviewed every five years in accordance with the 2015 Paris Agreement to limit global warming to 1.5°C.
The draft text published by the UNFCCC contains a number of options for reducing global emissions. These include three options for formulating a fossil fuel phase-out and a draft text on the role of the private sector and nature.